On the production and release of chemical transmitters and related topics in cellular control

Author(s): Grossberg, S. |

Year: 1969

Citation: Journal of Theoretical Biology, 22, 325-364

Abstract: This paper makes some neurophysiological and biochemical predictionsconcerning transmitter production and release which are suggested bypsychological postulates. A main theme is the joint comrol of presynapticexcitatory transmitter production by presynaptic and postsynaptic levelsof membrane potential. This control is presumed to be effected by theinteraction of the pairs (Na+, K+) and (Ca + +, Mg + +) of antagonistic ionswhose binding properties to intracellular sites and enzymes set variouscellular production levels. It is suggested that nerve cells are capable oflearning as `chemical dipoles'. A qualitative rationale is discussed forsuch phenomena as the following: joint inward fluxes of Na+ and Ca++due to membrane excitation; distribution of mitochondria and synapticvesicles near the synaptic cleft; sensitivity of RNA interaction to Mg++concentration; stronger binding of Ca+ + relative to K+ within the synapticknobs; mobilization and depletion of transmitter by presynaptic spiking;post-tetanic potentiation; excitatory transients in transmitter release aftera rest period; feedback inhibition of transmitter onto a late stage oftransmitter production; transport down the axon of some lightermolecules produced in the cell body; proportionality of cell body membrane area to nuclear volume; intracellular tubules as faithful transportmechanisms between nerve cell body and nucleus, and from nucleus alongaxon to synaptic knobs; division of cell shape into a cell body, axon, andsynaptic knobs as a structural manifestation of the underlying chemicaldipole.

Topics: Biological Learning, Mathematical Foundations of Neural Networks, Models: Other,

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