Author(s): Grossberg, S. |
Citation: Biol Cybern Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 187-202
Abstract: Part I of this paper describes a model for the parallel development and adult coding of neural feature detectors. It shows how any set of arbitrary spatial patterns can be recoded, or transformed, into any other spatial patterns (universal recoding), if there are sufficiently many cells in the network s cortex. This code is, however, unstable through time if arbitrarily many patterns can perturb a fixed number of cortical cells. This paper shows how to stabilize the code in the general case using feedback between cellular sites. A biochemically defined critical period is not necessary to stabilize the code, nor is it sufficient to ensure useful coding properties.
We ask how short term memory can be reset in response to temporal sequences of spatial patterns. This leads to a context-dependent code in which no feature detector need uniquely characterize an input pattern; yet unique classification by the pattern of activity across feature detectors is possible. This property uses learned expectation mechanisms whereby unexpected patterns are temporarily suppressed and/or activate nonspecific arousal. The simplest case describes reciprocal interactions via trainable synaptic pathways (long term memory traces) between two recurrent on-center off-surround networks undergoing mass action (shunting) interactions. This unit can establish an adaptive resonance, or reverberation, between two regions if their coded patterns match, and can suppress the reverberation if their patterns do not match. This concept yields a model of olfactory coding within the olfactory bulb and prepyriform cortex. The resonance idea also includes the establishment of reverberation between conditioned reinforcers and generators of contingent negative variation if presently avialable sensory cues are compatible with the network s drive requirements at that time; and a search and lock mechanism whereby the disparity between two patterns can be minimized and the minimal disparity images locked into position. Stabilizing the code uses attentional mechanisms, in particular nonspecific arousal as a tuning and search device. We suggest that arousal is gated by a chemical transmitter system?for example, norepinephrine?whose relative states of accumulation at antagonistic pairs of on-cells and off-cells through time can shift the spatial pattern of STM activity across a field of feature detectors. For example, a sudden arousal increment in response to an un-expected pattern can reverse, or rebound, these relative activities, thereby suppressing incorrectly classified populations. The rebound mechanism has formal properties analogous to negative afterimages and spatial frequency adaptation.
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