Author(s): Grossberg, S. |
Citation: Psychological Review, 87, 1-51.
Abstract: This article indicates how competition between afferent data and learned feed-back expectancies can stabilize a developing code by buffering committed populations of detectors against continual erosion by new environmental demands. The gating phenomena that result lead to dynamically maintained critical periods, and to attentional phenomena such as overshadowing in the adult. The functional unit of cognitive coding is suggested to be an adaptive resonance, or amplification and prolongation of neural activity, that occurs when afferent data and efferent expectancies reach consensus through a matching process. The resonant state embodies the perceptual event, or attentional focus, and its amplified and sustained activities are capable of driving slow changes of long-term memory. Mismatch between afferent data and efferent expectancies yields a global suppression of activity and triggers a reset of short-term memory, as well as rapid parallel search and hypothesis testing for uncommitted cells. These mechanisms help to explain and predict, as manifestations of the unified theme of stable code development, positive and negative aftereffects, the McCollough effect, spatial frequency adaptation, monocular rivalry, binocular rivalry and hysteresis, pattern completion, and Gestalt switching; analgesia, partial reinforcement acquisition effect, conditioned reinforcers, underaroused versus overaroused depression; the contingent negative variation, P300, and ponto-geniculo-occipital waves; olfactory coding, corticogeniculate feedback, matching of proprioceptive and terminal motor maps, and cerebral dominance. The psychophysiological mechanisms that unify these effects are inherently nonlinear and parallel and are inequivalent to the computer, probabilistic, and linear models currently in use.
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