Author(s): Grossberg, S. |
Citation: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 42, 365-396
Abstract: This paper describes mechanisms of intracellular and intercellular adaptation that are due to spatial or temporal factors. The spatial mechanisms support self-regulating pattern formation that is capable of directing self-organization in a large class of systems, including examples of directed intercellular growth, transmitter production, and intracellular conductance changes. A balance between intracellular flows and counterflows causes adaptation. This balance can be shifted by environmental inputs. The decrease in Ca2+-modulated outward K+ conductance in certain molluscan nerve cells is a likely example. Examples wherein Ca2+ acts as a second messenger that shunts receptor sensitivity can also be discussed from this perspective.
The systems differ in basic ways from recent diffusion models. Chemical transducers driven by membrane-bound intracellular signals can establish long-range intercellular interactions that compensate for variable intercellular distances and are invariant under developmental size changes; diffusional signals do not. The intracellular adaptational mechanisms are formally analogous to intercellular mechanisms that include cellular properties which are omitted in recent reaction-diffusion models of pattern formation. The cellular models use these properties to compute size-invariant properties despite wide variations in their intercellular signals.
Mechanisms of temporal adaptation can be derived from the simplest laws of chemical transduction by using a correspondence principle. These mechanisms lead to such properties of intercellular signals as transient overshoot, antagonistic rebound, and an inverted U in sensitivity as intracellular signals or adaptation levels shift. Such effects are implicated in studies of behavioral, reinforcement, motor control, and cognitive coding.
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